Assessment for AE Online Course Plans, Aug-Sept 2016

Greetings!

From August 2 through September 13, practitioners are participating in a LINCS online course that explores fundamental ideas of assessment for adult literacy learners. Here course participants will share their plans for applying what they have learned in the course with their learners.

We encourage you to explore the ideas and plans posted here and reply with comments, questions, experiences and ideas for supporting effective assessment in adult education.

Comments

It's great to see how our training made it, thanks to Marie Cora, to the discussion topics. We are now in the middle of our course, and it's been very informative. Many more good things to come! Thanks.

Here is my plan...I look forward to trying it out with my students when we return to class next week.  I think the strategy name along, Muddies Point Technique, will help students to see that it is ok to be muddy  in class and that with some guided instruction, things will become less muddy.

 

 

Activity Description

 

 

Trying out the Muddiest Point Technique from the Georgetown University website

 

Muddiest Point Technique can be done either orally or in writing, students explain which concepts are most difficult to understand and why.

  • Useful for ascertaining which fundamental course or curricular concepts need the most attention

http://assessment.georgetown.edu/courselevel/gather-evidence-of-student-learning/classroom-assessment-techniques/

 

 

 

 

 

Activity Purpose

(What result are you looking for?)

 

 

The purpose of this activity is for my students to become “ok” with not knowing/understanding something.  By using the old adage, “clear as mud”, it might take the “stress” off of them for not knowing or understanding what it is that they should have learned from what was presented.

By stating, or writing, what was “muddy” can help them formulate in their head what it is exactly, rather than just committing to “I don’t get it”.  It will help them to think crucially about what was taught/learned, what they understand and what they don’t.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Class Description

(Level and demographics)

 

 

We start back to classes next week, September 12, but typically in the HiSET prep class, we have students that range in age from 17 and up.  It is a large town in NH, but we are located close to the MA border so we do get students who come to us to for classes since it is closer than their ed centers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Resources Needed

 

 

Nothing…that is what makes this technique so great!

 

 

 

 

 

 

Evaluation

(How will you gauge the impact of the activity on your students?)

 

 

I will gauge the impact of this activity with my students in that no one says, “I don’t get it”.  That they struggle to articulate with words or writing what exactly it is that they don’t get.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Communicating with Students

(How will your students know whether their performance has improved?)

 

 

Once students articulate what it is that they don’t get, with repeated instruction, scaffolding of learning, and then formative assessment, we can gauge together if learning has taken place, or if it is less muddy.  There would need to be a gradual release from me to take them to clearer thoughts and then they would have to show they their thoughts are clear.

I think after this is used/demonstrated, I will have a better sense of what we are looking for to show that understanding is there.

Activity Description: The activity will begin by having the instructor share his/her own stated goals for the class. This is to be used as an example for all of the students to have an awareness of what the end product will look like. The instructor will also provide a written Performance Evaluation Checklist so that students will be fully aware of everything that is required to be in their Student Goals assignment. Students will then be asked to create a list of five attainable goals that they can complete by the end of the semester. From this list, they will work with the instructor and peers to create their number one goal to be chosen for the final assignment. With the instructor and peers students will then create five smaller goals to be used to help them achieve their final goal. Students will then create an outline plan that resembles the instructor's model to explain how they will use their five smaller goals to help them achieve their larger goal.

Activity Purpose: Creating goals with my students. The purpose of this activity is to allow the student and the instructor to create attainable, realistic goals together, and for both parties to be able to monitor the progress of the student. This will lead to better student-reflection and a continuous understanding of where the student lies on their path toward their initially stated plan of success.

Class Description: This project is universally available to all classrooms, but will be employed in my HSE classroom during the beginning of the semester two weeks from now. The great part about the broadness of this project is that is can be adapted and modified to be used in any type of classroom.

Resources needed: Computers, teacher's goal outline model, instructor, peers, evaluation sheet, blank copies of outline.

Assessment: I will be assessing students on a daily basis to monitor their smaller goals and see how they are progressing by beginning each class with a 5-10 minute discussion of their performance to that point (we will go over strengths, weaknesses, problems students are having with their goals, how to adapt or change their performance for the better), I will have weekly sit-downs with each student to go over their outlines and check their progress, and then finally a culminating end of semester (two months later), meeting with each student to discuss whether they have met and succeeded in their main goal. This will be the most formal method of assessment during the project as I will also be evaluating their final outline with them.

Communicating with students: Because I will be meeting with students on a weekly-basis I can go over all of these concepts continuously with each student to make sure that they are fully-aware of what is expected from them and how they can improve if they are falling behind. This is a very intensive project for the instructor, and involves a great deal of feedback from the instructor to the student and the student to the instructor. I believe this large amount of communication will help improve student performance in reaching their goals.

Hello Everyone,

 

I am sharing one of my assessment activity plans. I attached one of the worksheets I use for this activity in week's 4 discussion board. I call it the "Classmate Activity." I do not call it a test or assessment I don't want to intimidate my students,  and I want them to be engaged and have fun.

i do this for my pre-GED and GED level students. I basically generate statements that are related to the GED test, math, reading, and writing. I even throw some personal statements on the worksheet. The activities' purpose is to:

To see if adult learners are familiar with or know some basics in math, reading, and writing.

To see if adult learners know certain aspects of the GED test.

To see if adult learners have commonalities.

Basically, students engage with each other and ask if another student is familiar with or can answer the statement. If a student can, him or her signs the student's paper. One student cannot have no more than 3 signatures on another student's worksheet. The student that has the most signatures (after a specific allotted time), gives his or her worksheet to the instructor. The instructor then goes through every statement and see if the student who signed it knows it. If every student that signed that particular student's worksheet gets every statement correct, they get a prize.

 

I collect every worksheet and use it to guide future instruction.

My apologies if I got this wrong, but I copied and pasted the questions from the Activity Planning Form. I've also copied and pasted the essential question form that I use with student, as described in the Activity Plan

Activity Description

 The student will be completing a goal evaluation handout that addresses career goals, educational goals, personal goals, credits still missing in H.S. (HSCP—my area), and why the student has chosen to engage with ABE, etc.

Normally, I like using the goal sheet as a discussion tool that will enable the student to open about his/her direction.

As he/she describes the intended  goals, I will chime in about opportunities and options they may have.

They will also fill out an Essential Questions form that addresses essential questions in each area of credit needs for classes and individualized projects

Activity Purpose  (What result are you looking for?)

I’m looking for the student to contribute in large part to the individualized learning plan that I create for them. Their input is essential.

Class Description  (Level and demographics)

We offer learning labs where the student comes in to work on their plans while I check in with each of them about aspects of their plan and service providers in the community that they may want to access. My colleague does the instructional component of the plan learning goals.

Resources Needed           

List of service providers in the area, online courses, teaching curriculum from other teachers.

 

Evaluation  (How will you gauge the impact of the activity on your students?)

           

If the student is successfully completing his/her learning goals on the plan and if he/she is on track to graduate.

Communicating with Students   (How will they know if their performance has improved?)

                                  

Through formative assessment and completed assignments and course/workshops.

 

Essential Questions for Projects/Credits

 

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Hi, everyone. I just completed the Activity Planning Form for the Assessment for ABE course. I would like to share with you some information regarding this simple class assessment I prepared and conducted in my ESL class, inspired by our training.

The main purpose of this activity is to build job related vocabulary and language skills, while improving their personal and professional confidence regarding their job search.

In this particular class we have high beginning and intermediate levels. Most of the students are new immigrants, others need to improve their language skills to be able to get a better job.   

This activity focuses on individual jobs the students want to obtain, and the skills needed for them. It is presented in the form of a simple questionnaire, with an introductory exercise regarding a particular job, through which the students select ideas connected with the skills this job requires. After the preliminary warm up exercise, they can concentrate on the questions that follow.

The students' interest and full participation is the main focus of the evaluation aspect of the activity. Comprehension of the exercise and the completion of the answers is also evaluated. We take into consideration the students feedback on the activity as well. These three components reflect the success of this class assessment.

I hope I conveyed the main ideas regarding this activity. Thank you all.

 

  • Activity Description

The PDR Goal Setting activity navigates adult learners through a process of identifying, reflecting and evaluating their short and long-term goals.  PDRP stands for plan, do, and reflect.   

At the beginning of the semester, adult learners enrolled in the class use the Goal Setting Pulling Forward - Pushing Back Goal Setting Worksheet to identify short and long-term goals, as well as possible supports and barriers they might encounter in trying to reach their articulated goals.  

Mid-way into the semester, adult learners revisit their answers on the Goal Setting Pulling Forward – Pushing Back Goal Setting Worksheet. Then, they complete the Before and After I Reach My Goal Worksheet to help them compare and contrast their lives prior to reaching their goals and upon completion of their goals.

Both worksheets are used for one-on-one chats with adult learners at the beginning of the semester and as part of small group and whole class discussions mid-way into the semester. During the last week of class, adult learners are invited to revisit their answers on their completed Goal Setting Pulling Forward – Pushing Back Goal Setting Worksheet again to ascertain whether or not they reached their articulated short-term goal and to determine where they are in the process of reaching their articulated long-term goal.

Activity Purpose (What result are you looking for?)

  • Increased Motivation/Self-Awareness. (Adult learners take the time to identify their short and long term goals.)
  • Increased Meta-Cognition. (Adult learners are more aware about what stimulates and hinders their growth.)
  • Increased Focus/Discipline (Adult learners take the time to compare and contrast their lives now (before reaching their goals and in the future once their goals are complete).   

Class Description (Level and demographics)

   Mixed level Pre-GED and GED learners attending an off-site GED class sponsored by a nonprofit adult literacy organization at a for profit trade school

Resources Needed           

  1. Goal Setting Pulling Forward - Pushing Back Goal Setting Worksheet (p. 36)
  2. Before and After I Reach My Goal Worksheet (p. 38)
  3. A reference sheet that includes the definitions of goal setting, focus, discipline and motivation

Evaluation (How will you gauge the impact of the activity on your students?)

The oral and written responses that my adult learners share via both worksheets will help me to determine whether or not the learners achieved the results I expected for them.  Additionally, the feedback they share during their one-on-one and class discussions will also help me determine the impact this activity had on them.     

Communicating with Students   (How will they know if their performance has improved?)

The learners will use the information they shared on the two worksheets, in the one-on-one discussions and in the class discussion to help them determine for themselves whether or not they have reached their short-term goal and whether or not they are on point in reaching their long-term goal.  

Lynn, I think our plan will be very successful. Your well-stated purposes and expectations for students will make their success much more attainable due to an easy understanding of what is expected from them. Well done.

Lynn,

I really like how detailed and thorough your plan is, and the students will definitely buy-in as they will see the value in setting goals that they can attain. The collaborative piece is also very important as it will build team building and cooperative learning capacity in the classroom. Well done!

I really like the idea of students evaluating their progress in meeting short and long term goals.  I think it would be very empowering for students to practice this self-reflective activity.  I'm going to review this with our teaching staff.  This approach seems to address the part of goal setting that is often ignored--progress in meeting the goals. Thank you.

As an HSCP Plan Manager, the only Assessment tool I use is the TABE.  Therefore, many of the activities we learned about are not appropriate for the work I do with students.  

However, if I were in an ESL setting, I would follow the example given in Topic 5R1, regarding integrating goal-setting into instructional practice.  I loved using student feedback about specific wants and needs of necessary skills to build curriculum.  I think it helps the students feel heard, and helps them to realize their needs are being met through the course they are putting their time and effort into.  It gives them immediate tools to improve in skills required of them to succeed in life.  That will keep them motivated to stay committed to their learning.  If I were an ESL instructor, I might use the following activity:

Activity Planning Form

Activity Description: Trial Restaurant Experience

Students will participate in a moch restaurant experience.  They will be seated at a table, presented with a menu, order their meal, ask questions about menu items, bathroom location, etc., and run through various scenarios typically experienced in a restaurant setting.

Activity Purpose 

Students will become familiar and comfortable with the language usage when going out to eat at a restaurant.

Class Description

Class is comprised of Adult ESL learners who have indicated an interest in being more comfortable with their english language skills in the restaurant setting.

Resources Needed

Table, chairs, possibly tablecloths, to transform the classroom into a moch restaurant setting.  Menus from a local restaurant would be beneficial in making the experience more realistic.

Evaluation

Once the students have gone through the activity in small groups, we may proceed to demonstarte the different scenarios for the class.  This will give the instructor an idea of areas that still need work in fluencey and comprehension, as well as comfort level of each student in using the language skills necessary to successfully manuever the situation. 

Communicating with Students

Students will know whether their perform ance was improved by the whether they can get through the experience successfully.  It will also be apparent to the student when they stumble on areas that may still need more work and skills gains.  Especially when presenting their scene to the class... there is no faking it because you either know how to proceed and what words to use, or you don't.  That will shape the next step in the curriculum.

Additional Experience

Once the group of students feels they have mastered the necessary language skills, they next step would be to actually go to a real restaurant and give them a try. It adds a whole other realm of confidence in their skills to go out in public and utilize their language with people they do not know. This would once again point out their progress, as well as areas that may still need some improvement.  Once they are proficiaent in their skills, this might be a great way to end this particular unit.

Activity Description

           

Math Goals Self-Assessment – This assessment centers around the practical use of math in everyday life, more consumer math oriented.

 

This assessment will be set up as an interactive learning activity. It is based on the Math Goals Self-Assessment in the Adult Learners Tool Kit.

 

Activity Purpose  (What result are you looking for?)

           

This assessment will be used to see what areas of everyday life the students are familiar with and whether they are able to accurately perform the tasks.

 

Once the students complete the activities, they will complete the Math Goals Self-Assessment form to evaluate what they were familiar with, what they were able to do and what they would like to learn how to do.

 

Class Description  (Level and demographics)

           

The students are those interested in pursuing their HS diploma or GED or those in the community that are interested in building their skills in consumer math.

 

Resources Needed

 

Monopoly money/ real coins

Checking account application

Blank checks and check book sheets

Restaurant checks (blank)

Phone, electric, water, cable bills

Credit card statement

Income tax forms

Recipes with measurements/ measuring cups/spoons

House room dimensions for carpet measurement

Local maps/google maps

Calculator

Children’s growth chart

           

Evaluation  (How will you gauge the impact of the activity on your students?)

 

This assessment has practical value for students and will present new or familiar math functions in order to determine whether the student needs/wants to learn about each process that they could potentially experience in their day to day lives.

 

Communicating with Students   (How will they know if their performance has improved?)

                                  

Students will learn how to do the various math exercises and then practice them together. When they are confident in their skills, they will assess one another in the activities and then fill out the self-assessment again and compare their pre-activity assessment and their post-activity assessment.

Here is my plan. Our Adult Basic Skills and GED Preparation Program begins at the end of October, and I cannot wait to get stared on this plan. I am truly optimistic that it will help to engage students and get them fully invested in their learning.

Activity Description

Students, with teacher’s help, will define specific goals that link language and knowledge skills to designated life topics. Students will then fill out a goal the “Our Learning Goals” worksheet. Struggling ELLs will be paired with students who are more proficient to fill in the required information. Once this worksheet is completed, I will have the students use the Goal Setting form to set mini-goals based on their broad goal. Then students will create action steps, using the Actions I can Take worksheet, which are achievable and timely.

Activity Purpose  (What result are you looking for?)

This activity is designed to get the students to set measurable, realistic goals, which are attainable and timely. It will also help students to focus on the entire journey instead of on only the end point of achieving their GED.

Class Description  (Level and demographics)

All levels and mostly ELLs (Hispanic and Haitian decent)  

Resources Needed

Worksheets, logs, technology (StarBoard for modeling using teacher’s own personal goal and “think aloud”)

Evaluation  (How will you gauge the impact of the activity on your students?)

Using the data from ongoing formative assessments, students will review their goals to check on their progress. Reviews will occur at regular intervals of 2 weeks and 3 months. Changes or adjustments to course materials and teaching will be made based on student need and student requests about what they want to study the following week.

Communicating with Students   (How will they know if their performance has improved?)

Frequent sharing of the data from formative assessments, student reflections using a reflection questionnaire or log

I am not a classroom teacher-as the Instructional Specialist I mentor teachers. One thing I've been actively engaging my teachers with lately is goal setting. 

As a class,we discuss what a goal is and isn't, focusing on what is within our control. Next, I ask students to close their eyes and picture what they, or their life, will look like once they achieve their goal. Students are given a piece of plain paper and markers. Next, I ask them to write out their goal and draw a picture of their achievement. The theory behind this activity is if a student can picture their success, they can keep their sights focused on that and they are capable of achieving their goals. These graphics are kept in their student binder so that students can look at their picture and be reassured that their goal is within their reach.

Each week, lessons focus on strategies to help students achieve their goals. For example, many of our students want to get a job. An activity for that week would be to do an O'Net job interest survey. This is a positive step to achieving their goal. Periodically, the students take out their goal graphics and make changes or additions depending on how they view their goal after mini successes.

By the end of the educational session, typically 16 weeks, the students have set goals, discussed obstacles and positive steps to overcome obstacles, made mini-successes and viewed their goals in a positive light. At the end, students pull out their goal graphics and hopefully, they realize how close to achieving their goals they have gotten.

 

Standardized Assessment

Our students are assessed using the TABE. We have made the test-taking environment and structure more flexible in response to seeing test scores that were significantly lower than expected.  We do the assessment on Mondays, when students are more likely to be rested.  We offer students the option of taking the entire TABE on one day or just a single section of it each day. Students can also take longer breaks between sections if they need. 

Many students need to retake one or more sections of the TABE after receiving focused instruction on the skills they need to improve.  We haven’t thought about ways to help students prepare for the test itself.  After reading about strategies to improve student performance on standardized tests, I plan to work with my staff to work on test-taking strategies with their students who will be re-taking the TABE.  I’m very interested in seeing how students approach re-testing after learning strategic approaches to taking the TABE.  I think that students’ self-confidence will be strengthened if they have a toolbox of skills they can bring with them when they re-take the TABE.

I will share the article, How to Do Your Best on Standardized Tests:  Some Suggestions for Adult Learners, with my staff.  We can select approaches from the strategies described and put together a roll-out plan for teaching these approaches to the students who are already involved in studying to improve their reading, language, computation or applied math TABE scores.  Preparing for the test itself can become part of the re-test process.

For example, the article suggests the following strategies:

Listen carefully to direction

Scan the test before starting to answer questions

Stay as calm as you can

Students can practice these approaches and discuss them with their teachers as they are working on their core skills.  We can evaluate the usefulness of the test-taking strategies by asking students how helpful they felt the strategies were to them in improving both their confidence and test scores.  

Hello Lori,

Below is a section of our Guide to Administering TABE that lists Tips for Examinees that you might find helpful.

 

Regards,

Mike Johnson | National Adult Education Director
Data Recognition Corporation - CTB
630-995-6712  | mjohnson@datarecognitioncorp.com

 

TIPS FOR EXAMINEES
(May be photocopied for distribution to examinees.)
• Relax. It is normal to be somewhat nervous before the test. Don’t worry.
• Be sure you can hear the directions. Let the examiner know if you cannot hear
or do not understand the directions.
• Listen to and read all the directions for each test carefully. Careless mistakes are
sometimes made because examinees fail to follow the directions. Ask for an
explanation of the directions if you do not understand. Be sure you understand
what you are being asked to do.
• Plan your time. Most of the test sections are timed. Do not spend too much time
on any one question. If a question seems to take too long, skip it and return to it
later if time permits. First respond to all questions of which you are certain of
the answer.
• Listen to the directions and read each test question carefully. Before responding
to a question, be sure you know what is being asked. For example, an item might say,
“Which of these is not an even number?” If you read the item too quickly, you may
miss the word not and respond incorrectly. Do not read into a question something
that is not there. Test questions are written to mean exactly what they say. There are
no hidden meanings or trick questions in the test.
• When marking your answers on a separate answer sheet, be careful that they match
the item numbers in the test book. Be sure to fill in the answer circles neatly and
completely; carelessness can cause you to get a low score. If you realize you have
been marking your answers in the wrong place, let the proctor or examiner know
immediately.
• Trust your instincts. More often than not, if you know the content, the first answer
you select is the best. When rechecking, change an answer only when you are sure
that your first answer choice was wrong.
• If you are not sure how to answer a question, eliminate answer choices that you know
are incorrect and choose from among the remaining options. Do not guess blindly.
• Keep a positive attitude about your ability to do well on the test. You cannot fail
the test. Remember that the score you receive on the test is only one measure of
your skills.

Retesting is always a struggle!  It can cause stress for students - sometimes to the point that they choose not to return to class in order to avoid what they believe will be a bad outcome.  Our teachers use TABE level tests from our workbooks to hone in on areas where students need additional help before retesting.  We always give them a "heads up" about a week or so before they are scheduled to retest.  I think there's also something to be said for confidence when it comes to taking tests.  So many of our students have become accustomed to doing poorly in school.  We have to help them hear a different conversation in their heads when it comes to success!

I work on goal setting more with ABE students than with ESL students.  My #1 challenge is that they often lack the motivation to set goals, let alone work toward achieving them.  One thing we've tried to do is to sprinkle mini-goals in with NRS and State goals in hopes of getting their wheels moving in the right direction.  We also have staff that push into classes to conduct targeted lessons/workshops, or sometimes just to follow up.  All teachers are asked to have a general discussion with their class and circulate a goals check off sheet to all students monthly.  We work SUPER hard at helping students set and move toward goals, but it's still a lot like herding cats.

I'm looking at using the Personal Goals Checklist from the Adult Learner Toolkit (2004) as part of a staff development session.  This goal setting activity is targeted toward ABE students, and helps them identify goals in the 3 EFF roles - worker, community member and family member.  I think that's a really healthy approach to goal setting that acknowledges that adults have many roles and responsibilities in addition to their role as a learner.  I like that the checklist allows them to rate each of the goals listed as "can do", "can do with help", "can't do", "want to do", or "no interest".  I hope that this activity will grow and/or reinforce vocabulary, as well as direct some of their activities (at school and outside of school). I also think it will be interesting to see how they rate their level of interest in each goal and their ability to accomplish it.  Our current goal setting practice only hits on interest, not perceived ability.

The staff development session will be delivered to 2 different groups of instructors:  ABE/GED instructors and adult HS diploma instructors.  The goal of the activity is that program staff will become comfortable helping students identify personal and professional goals; discussion, troubleshooting and follow-up become a regular component in all adult classrooms.  During the activity, I will utilize instructional technology for demonstration and discussion purposes, as well as handouts (including background information and current research that supports the relevance and impact of goal setting on learning and student achievement).  The impact of the activity will be evaluated using observation of participant engagement and an end-of-activity survey. Effective usage of the personal goals checklist will be assessed through monthly goal follow-up documentation.  In addition, the integration of goal setting into regular instruction will be added to our staff evaluation instrument.

Activity Description

Create a mock test that is modeled after concepts that appear in the TABE so that students are better prepared.

Activity Purpose 

Helping students succeed in a diagnostic assessment.

Class Description 

High school level students that wish to enter the high school completion program.

Resources Needed

Knowledge of the concepts involved.

Evaluation 

Seeing either a gain or stagnation when taking the test.

Communicating with Students  

Thorough discussion of their performance on the mock test, leading to a formal grade on the TABE.

     My goal is to preparing a student to successfully take the HiSet high school equivalency tests.  (Writing / Mathematics / Thinking Skills).  I want the student to be comfortable (or as comfortable as possible), when taking any of the tests.  I want them to have (absolute), confidence in their knowledge of the material.  I want them to know and understand strategies that will assist them in successfully completing the tests.

     Usually, I work in a one-to-one, student-teacher setting, where students receive individualized instruction.  The ages of my current three students involved in the HiSet preparation are 17 and 18.

     The resources I might use are the HiSet Scoreboost preparation materials, and any other additional resources required per individual student (for example, one student will require additional math practice.  I may resource the GED pre-test practice books or the Number Power resource books).  I will also provide time and opportunity to practice and question the skills needed, and test taking strategies that will come in handy for the actual taking of the test.  It is important that the student not neglect test preparation physical strategies like proper rest, food, and liquids (though water is best).

     I will know, to the best of my abilities, that a student is ready for testing when the student displays confidence in approaching the test knowing that they are prepared – (this is not the same as bravado).  In addition, it is also important that the student is able to express confidence in expected results, and have the ability to recall potential strategies that will assist them in reaching that goal.  One final area to check is if the student is physically ready for the test (Did they take preparing for the physical aspect of testing seriously?) 

     After all is said and done, and the test has been taken, I would initially do a verbal check-in with the student.  (How do you feel you did? What strategies did you use/find helpful?  Did you struggle in any area?...) Once test results were released, I would do a comparison of pre and posttest grades to have tangible proof that the student has improved.  These results would be shared and discussed with the student to discuss their success or, if need be, discuss additional strategies for improvement.

     Students will know that they have gained skills through the following;

          Chapter/Lesson testing

          Verbal feedback to/from the instructor/student

          Smoothness in their ability to demonstrate a skill and developing/ed confidence in that skill

          Pre and post testing scores/results comparison          

 

Michele