The Most Debatable Topic in Adult Education

Dear Colleagues:

Summer is fast approaching! As many of you in the Evidence-based Professional Development (PD) Group may recall, each summer as an online PD group, we choose a topic for our own collective summer reading and professional development. In the past we’ve held all kinds of group discussions -- some models spanning only one week, some spanning all summer, and many of them held in conjunction with at least one other group, like technology. I’d like to propose a format for this summer’s PD group discussion: the debate.

A debate has never been held in a national online forum in adult education before, at least to my knowledge. What do * you * think is the most debatable topic in adult education? Remember, it would need to have some tie to adult literacy professional development in order to be hosted in the PD Group. It could also overlap an existing topic area(s), in which case I could ask the SME of that topic area(s) to co-host a debate with me. Here are some suggestions to get the ideas going, with thanks to David Rosen for his input:

  • Teaching as Science or as Art?
  • Using Data for Program Improvement
  • What Every Adult Education Teacher Should Teach (Integrate)
    • Reading?
    • Digital Literacy?
    • Numeracy?
    • “Soft” skills?
  • The Most Important Change Needed in Adult Education Is…
    • Improved teacher working conditions and access to more FT jobs
    • Increased funding
    • Practices with College and Career Readiness Standards
    • (add to this list...)
  • Requiring Teacher Certification / Credentialing?

What do you think? What is the most debatable topic in adult education? Would you revise any part of the list above or what would you add?

Thanks,

Jackie

Jackie Taylor

Evidence-based Professional Development SME

Comments

Jackie - I like this idea. Tomorrow I am going to Lake Charles, Lousiana, to present a training for adult ESL instructors on helping to make English learners standards ready and how to differentiate instruction learners at different levels of proficiency,

I'm going to ask them what they think is the most debatable topic.

I encourage folks on the adult ELL list to weigh in here as well. Thanks again, Jackie and David.

Miriam Burt

SME, Adult English Language Learner Group

 

Yes, I went to Lake Charles, but I forgot to ask what they thought was a debatable topic in working with English learners. Tomorrow I'm doing training Buffalo. I hope I remember to ask them.

At any rate, one debatable topic that I see is the value of certain graphic organizers, such as mind mapping. A few years ago I read an article - working remotely now, so not able to locate it at the minute - that cited research showing that mind maps were not useful in getting students to learn something new. Basically, the article said, the only way to get students to really learn something and remember it, is to give them a test on it. Now, I think the students being tested were likely K12, but I wonder how/if  that information relates to adult learners

So, maybe a debatable topic is the value of graphic organizers and other tools versus just testing, testing, testing? Or is the debatable issue how important is it to rely on research when the population studied does not match the population one works with?

Miriam

Now to locate that article, somewhere...

Miriam, I found this article which mentions that research on how graphic organizers was an excellent learning tool for visual learners and also for memorizing and retaining new information. LINK - http://www.mentoringminds.com/pdf/pdfGraphicOrganizersResearch.pdf

I am very curious to read the article that you mention in your post.

~ Priyanka Sharma  

Should the National Reporting System (NRS) develop a competency-based alternative? If so, should that be in addition to the present system that relies on levels measured by standardized tests, or should it replace that system?

David J. Rosen

 

Hi Jackie,

I agree with Miriam, this is a great project!  I'd love to see discussion/debate with the Correctional Ed Group around whether incarcerated students should have internet access.  What do you think??

For clarification, the PD aspect would be implementing access -- what PD would be required to successfully allow access to online digital content in correctional classrooms?  How much would teachers in a secure facility be responsible for regarding maintaining the security and integrity of their classrooms?  If not the teachers job to verify "safe" access, then whose?

Thanks again.  You've really got me thinking.:)

-- Heather Erwin

Thanks for your comment, Heather, I've never thought of that before -- whether or to what extent it is the teacher's responsibility to maintain the security and integrity of a correctional classroom with respect to digital access! Thank *you* for getting me thinking.

Jackie Taylor

EBPD SME

    From the discussions that we've had on this subject, I believe the typical response from the IT groups (if they were to entertain the possibility at all) would be locking access down to only specifics sites and domains.  You would want to make sure of the site before you turned it over to your IT to be added to the 'safe' list.

    As far as the PD, you're going to need to have teachers who are Digitally Literate themselves.  Microsoft has a Train-the-Trainer (teach-the-teacher) program that is part of their Partners in Learning - http://www.piltrainer.com/.  It, in turn was developed in part with UNESCO as part of thier ICT Competency Framework for Teachers - http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/access-to-knowledge/unesco-ict-competency-framework-for-teachers/.

-Marshall

 

Hello Marshall,

Thank you for this information!  I was not aware of Microsoft's Partners in Learning program (shame on me...).  this is great stuff and very useful to correctional educators who, as you say, must first be digitally literate themselves before even attempting to teach CTE skills to their students.  Thanks much for the links.

-- Heather

Ma'am,

    I've been in the Partners In Learning for awhile now, but I just got started with trainer program earlier this year and have been creeping my way into it…

    The initial piece is a face-to-face workshop or a webinar to explain what the program is.  After that, you apply (and are typically accepted) for admission to the trainer area.  They have four workshops that they've built:

    They also give you access to other material (Best Practices / Preparation / Product Training / Evaluation / Webcasts / Marketing) that they've developed and while they did put it together, you don't have to use Microsoft products to do the workshops with.

-Marshall

Hi Heather, 

In Illinois, we have recently piloted i-Pathways at 7 correctional institutions. We were able to provide a secure network for learners to access our online curriculum as a part of their GED(r) Test Prep. We are in the planning process of implementing this statewide. I would love to learn about what other facilities are doing for secure networks in order to prepare offenders for computer based testing. 

Kathy,

I would also be interested in knowing more about the pilot of the I-Pathways and the online courses you have included with the GED prep. Oregon is exploring options for online access for inmate students.

Increased focus and appreciation of the crucial role that support services and navigators/counselors have on student success and how these services and positions can be created/sustained as we continue our work on college and career readiness support for students at all levels... 

{I feel that this is not controversial/debatable but often neglected or not prioritized}

~ Priyanka Sharma 

SME, Postsecondary Completion

  (I also am less interested in "debatable" topics than I am interested in topics where we agree there's a need and we can discuss ways to meet that need...) 

I agree with you. Support services, job counselors, and family development workers are a big part of the puzzle for many students. They can help learners eliminate barriers to their persistence such as transportation, childcare, healthcare, and housing (and other less tangible issues like mental health). They can also guide learners to become more confident and interdependent members of the community.

Many programs do not have the funding or their grant does not allow them to use funds to pay someone to focus solely on these issues, so program directors or even teachers end up trying to pick up the slack. Community colleges have an advantage here because they often have student centers, academic and mental health counseling, and other wrap-around services that support students. We've got to find a way for community organizations to be able to support students in this way too. Maybe then, students will be able to find a job "for now" and still attend classes; find quality, inexpensive childcare, so they are not worrying about their children while they are in class; or gain access to reliable transportation options to get them to class regularly.

Does Professional Development work? How do we know?

What  can make PD work better?  How do we improve results?

[Specifically, how do we integrate *assessment* as well as higher levels of evaluation into PD?]

T. R. Guskey's book, Evaluating Professional Development, lays out 5 levels of evaluation of professional development.  The first level, Participant's Reactions, is what is usually measured by the evaluation form at the end of an event.  These evaluations often focus on quality, usefulness, and relevance of the event to the experience of the participants.  The second level, Participant's Learning, can be measured in a number of ways, commonly by pre- and post-assessment.  The evaluation can get at the participants actually increase of knowledge and skills, or can ask if the participant believes that his/her knowledge was increased by the event.  Level 3 is Organizational Support and Change, which I will leave alone here. Level 4 evaluates the participant's use of new knowledge and skills.  Do the participants use their new knowledge and skills back on the job?  Level 5 addresses whether the participant's learning affects student learning outcomes, which is of course the desired impact of any education-focused professional development.

The book is very easy to read and use, with lots of examples.  You may also find useful evaluations in NSTTAC's Evaluation Toolkit, found at www.nsttac.org.  If the PD is worth doing, it is worth evaluating!

Thanks for raising this issue, Duren, and for bringing up Guskey's framework, Lydia. We've been using Guskey's framework in PA and it has definitely been helpful. While we have some research that shows what makes for high quality professional development, it is not easy to measure the impact of PD on student learning. This would be a great topic to pursue.

Cheers, Susan

Moderator, Assessment CoP
 

Thank you very much for the book recommendation and your summary of the five levels of evaluation of PD. 

I think that whether or not one is able to address the five levels of evaluation might also depend on the context of the PD. For example, tracking the impact of PD on practitioners participating in an in-house face-to-face workshop might be easier than tracking the impact of PD on a geographically diverse group of practitioners participating in a 60 minute webinar.

I look forward to hearing other people's thoughts on this.

Thanks for your reply, Shelagh.  I think you are right.  It is easier to measure student outcomes of a PD event when it occurs within a single school or school district. One strategy would be to check back with each school or school district, asking them to use a tool you have developed to follow up with their students, and then get the data back to you...not easy to arrange, but if you find even one willing partner, that is something.

At least in my HSD class and ABE/ GED class ( which will now become HiSET) students need their diplomas and high school equivalency diplomas soon ( more like yesterday) to get a job or to get into college.  Often they come with very low skills; how much do we try to teach everything they might need for work and or college or do we try to help them achieve their goals of the diploma or certificate in a timely manner.  Often they lose motivation if it takes a long time. But if we skip some topics, our we the teachers  really helping making them college and career ready?  I am curious how other schools deal with this issue. I know at my school every teacher has their own opinion and this has left us with a very inconsistent approach. One concrete example is Math, do we wait until they have mastered skills before introducing the calculator or do we let them use as they learn the skills. Another example is Writing, we are thinking of teaching skills such as google docs with writing ; as much as this might take some time away from the nuts and bolts of the skills needed to pass the equivalency test.  We try and set some "standards"; but sometimes these are very high for some of our students who need to make life changes quickly to improve their quality of life or even to survive.

 

I look forward to your opinions,

 

 

This is such a great topic, and not one with easy answers.  Reasonable people can disagree, so I think it makes for a fascinating debate.  What concerns me is the portion of our students who really struggle just to barely pass the GED.  I think we are setting the stage to disenfranchise these people entirely.  The stakes are so high nowadays.  Just to get the most entry level job, or even to keep the job you have requires that little piece of paper.  What happens to those people who have no desire to go to college?

I concede the rising number of people who enter college needing to take remedial classes is a big problem, but it may just be beyond our scope to get our students college ready when they're truly giving their all merely to pass the GED.  We keep moving the goal posts, and at some point it just becomes unfair.

What I think should happen is some type of mid-level credentialling.  There should be one credential offered for people who want to go on to higher education.  There should be another credential for people who want to show an acceptable level of reading, writing and math proficiency in order to gain employment.  Let the students choose their own route intead of having it forced upon them.

Hi Marika,

    GED 2014 now essentially has what you're talking about.  It has two scoring levels - GED Passing Score and GED Passing Score with Honors (which they are saying demonstrates career- and college-readiness (CCR)).

-Marshall

What you are suggesting is actually what a career pathway is.  People's abilities, current skills, and available time to spend learning vary widely, and a career pathway has several steps along the pathway where they might "start" or "stop" or "stop out".  Hopefully, each of these steps is a place where there is some kind of reward or recognition of accomplishment such as a credential or permitted entry into the next step, and they can see the way to take that next step when they are ready.  A GED might be one step of a particular career pathway, but there are also career pathways for which the GED does not have to be a step.  And there are community colleges that accept adults into a program without the necessity of the GED.  I guess we're actually getting into the discussion here without just talking about what would make a good discussion!

Donna Brian

SME, Career Pathways

Students can attend community college without a GED but without a GED or other high school equivalency, they will not be eligible for federal financial aid.

I agree with you.  We are encouraged to get all students ready for college.  The vast majority of our students need their High School Equivalency Certificate (HSEC) just to feed themselves and their children.  Many of our students will lose their jobs if they don't get the credential soon.  We also have many students that are court ordered to get a HSEC.  Do we hold them until they're ready for college? For the most part, students come to get their HSEC for survival, not because they are ambitious.  Don't get me wrong; I talk up college every chance I get.  

We thought we had an important piece of the puzzle in the Career Readiness Certificate.  DWS agreed to pay for the WorkKeys test for all of our adult ed students.  A large employer in our region was requiring  WorkKeys scores before candidates were allowed to interview.  The funds died off and now we don't refer anyone for the test.  It gets frustrating doesn't it?  

What I'm hoping is we can be a part of establishing a Career Pathways program that can really help the students in need.

   The number one thing that works is success when it comes to motivating students. They need success and they need to see success in others. As a one room school house with open entry and open exit policy, retention -especially of low skilled individuals- is key. When students see others who struggle treated with respect, when they see students studying make a success, and when they get success themselves then they stay.  Success isn't making it easier (like giving a calculator to get over a tough spot); but actually learning a technique or skill that makes their chore easier (like knowing when to use a calculator and how).  I think the issue your present is about focus. What is the program's focus in introducing this tool or skipping this item? Sometimes we as teachers of a subject get focused on the subject and not the big picture; so, we argue about teaching calculators rather than discuss our focus.

     I have the luxury and the difficulty of tailoring each student's education to that person. When a person's goal is I have to work NOW. Then we talk about the consequence of just learning enough to pass and I encourage him/her that if we take this route he/she may be faced with difficulty should he/she choose more schooling. I try to be sure she/he knows well what she/he needs for what the job plan is and just enough to pass if it is less relevant to the choice. I encourage her/him to return here to get the diploma (i.e. prep. for college) if she/he  wants to go on and the test scores indicate remediation will be needed. I also let it be known that if he/she has to do remediation at college that will add to the expense (Here high school is a free education even for adults.).  If the person's goal is college then I focus on preparation in fractions, Algebra, Geometry and writing; in addition, I encourage taking the high school proficiencies and completing the high school diploma (Nevada allows students to use the High School Equivalency tests -GED, TASC, HiSET- to waive English, Science, Math, and up to 2 electives.).  Reading is also becoming an area of need for students going to college, so I am looking for a good process for more critical reading.

Thanks for opening up this discussion, Jackie. There are a number of issues in assessment that could be discussed. One that I know is of interest to many is how to address the needs of highly skilled immigrants and other advanced English learners who often test out of the assessments designed for them.

Another topic might be understanding the assessments learners must take to get to their next steps along a career pathway whether that is a workplace assessment such as Work Keys, a college placement test such as COMPASS, or an English language test such as the Test of English as Foreign Language. How much do adult educators need to know to help students to prepare for their next steps when these tests are on the horizon?

I hope members of the Assessment Community of Practice will weigh in with additional ideas for discussion.

Cheers, Susan

Moderator, Assessment COP
 

When a student tests out of an assessment, we are able to offer them an Advanced or Beginner Conversation Classes scheduled in our Community Education program. If they cannot afford these classes, I also suggest volunteering and/or various career-based websites that may be of interest to their own personal professional development, which I have gleaned from LINCS.  Two areas of career topics that I use over and over again are Healthcare and Auto Mechanics.

The most debatable for me would be some of the terminology in the Common Core and what does it mean. Take an idea  like "Classify numbers as rational or irrational", exactly how would you assess this in a student, how do we think the test providers test it, and how do you make it a level 1,2,3... on the Web scale or what would be combined with it to bring it to that level? Another idea "By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.I think we would be surprised at our places of agreement and disagreement." How do we know what this complexity is, how can we teach others to evaluate texts as meeting this?

 

Hi everyone,

Thank you so much to all who have contributed ideas to this thread on The Most Debatable Topic in Adult Ed. I'll post a summary / listing of ideas later today. But in the meantime I wanted to share a couple of additional ideas I gleaned from the recent OCTAE conference for state directors and state staff:

Is a HS equivalency really equal?

A high school diploma shows that a person has completed four years of secondary education in the U.S. and passed an exit exam. But what is a high school equivalency really equivalent to? With the advent of high school equivalency options, common core standards, and college and career ready standards, how do states define “equivalency” for themselves? Are we holding our adult students to higher standards than our youth in order to earn that equivalent?

Developmental Education & Adult Education

Another topic I have heard about is the issue of developmental education and adult education. For states that encourage adult education programs to partner with community colleges, is there an issue of who gets served more in adult ed? For example, are we seeing more adults in our adult education programs who have high school diplomas but come down the hall from developmental education for remedial instruction? What are the issues around dev ed and adult ed?

Thanks,

Jackie

Jackie Taylor

Evidence-based Professional Development SME

This is a great list of topics.  I'd like to add two:  How can science be integrated effectively into instruction?  Can it provide a specific core topic around which a variety of skills can be practiced?  How about other topics in STEM areas, such as explorations in engineering.  For example, the engineering of bridges could bring in math, science, science history, geography, reading/writing, applications to careers.

Here's the second one:  how can we encourage the development of apprentice programs for workers and potential workers in our states and regions.  South Carolina is a good model for cooperation among employers, community colleges, and non-profits.

Susan

Hi Susan,

Thank you for the recommendations. I'll add them to the running list I created (found in this thread). You've touched on a topic that is near and dear to me. Perhaps either or both of these would make for a great guest discussion this summer. And I'd love to hear more about how states are integrating science instruction in professional development for adult educators.

Thanks again,

Jackie

Jackie Taylor

Evidence-based Professional Development SME

Hi everyone,

Sorry for the delay. Here's the list of ideas I have so far. Anything to clarify or add? Anything that can be combined? I look forward to your thoughts.

Jackie Taylor

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

A) Graphic Organizers vs Tests: What is the value of using graphic organizers and other tools for learning versus just testing, testing, testing?

B) Applying Research from Outside of Adult Ed

How important is it to rely on research when the population studied does not match the population one works with?

C) Competency-based Alternatives to the NRS

Should the National Reporting System (NRS) develop a competency-based alternative? If so, should that be in addition to the present system that relies on levels measured by standardized tests, or should it replace that system?

D) Whose Responsibility Is It to Maintain Digitally-safe Correctional Classrooms?

Should incarcerated students have internet access? Whether or to what extent is it the teacher's responsibility to maintain the security and integrity of a correctional classroom with respect to digital access? What PD would be required to successfully promote access to online digital content in correctional classrooms?  If it’s not the teachers job to verify "safe" access, then whose?

E) Understanding the Crucial Role of Support Services in College and Career Readiness Programs

Increased focus and appreciation of the crucial role that support services and navigators/ counselors have on student success and how these services and positions can be created/ sustained as we continue our work on college and career readiness support for students at all levels... 

F) Does Professional Development work?

How do we know? What can make professional development (PD) work better?  How do we improve results? How do we integrate assessment as well as higher levels of evaluation into PD?

G) Moving the Goal Posts: Are Basic Skills at Risk when Teaching to College and Career Ready Standards?

Students need their diplomas and high school equivalency diplomas as soon as possible in order to get a job or to get into college.  Often they come with very low skills; how much do we try to teach everything they might need for work and or college or do we try to help them achieve their goals of the diploma or certificate in a timely manner?  They often lose motivation if it takes a long time. But if we skip some topics, are we really helping to make them college and career ready? 

For example, do we wait until they have mastered skills before introducing the calculator or do we let them use calculators as they learn the skills? Another example is writing. Do we teach Google docs with writing, as much as this might take some time away from the nuts and bolts of the skills needed to pass the equivalency test? We try and set some standards; but sometimes these are very high for some of our students who need to make life changes quickly to improve their quality of life or even to survive.

Is it beyond our scope to get our students college ready when they're truly giving their all merely to pass the GED?  At what point is this unfair?

H) Needs of Highly Skilled Immigrants

How do we address the needs of highly skilled immigrants and other advanced English learners who often test out of the assessments designed for them?

I) Assessments Along Career Pathways

Do we understand the assessments learners must take in order to get to their next steps along a career pathway? It could be a workplace assessment such as Work Keys, a college placement test such as COMPASS, or an English language test such as the Test of English as Foreign Language. How much do adult educators need to know to help students to prepare for their next steps when these tests are on the horizon?

J) Assessment and the Common Core

The most debatable for me would be some of the terminology in the Common Core and what does it mean. Take an idea like "Classify numbers as rational or irrational", exactly how would you assess this in a student, how do we think the test providers test it, and how do you make it a level 1,2,3... on the Web scale or what would be combined with it to bring it to that level? Another idea "By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.I think we would be surprised at our places of agreement and disagreement." How do we know what this complexity is, how can we teach others to evaluate texts as meeting this?

K) Is a HS equivalency really equal?

A high school diploma shows that a person has completed four years of secondary education in the U.S. and passed an exit exam. But what is a high school equivalency really equivalent to? With the advent of high school equivalency options, common core standards, and college and career ready standards, how do states define “equivalency” for themselves? Are we holding our adult students to higher standards than our youth in order to earn that equivalent?

L) Developmental Education & Adult Education

Another topic I have heard about is the issue of developmental education and adult education. For states that encourage adult education programs to partner with community colleges, is there an issue of who gets served more in adult ed? For example, are we seeing more adults in our adult education programs who have high school diplomas but come down the hall from developmental education for remedial instruction? What are the issues around dev ed and adult ed?

Hi,

What a great list of topics! But surely we can resolve some of the topics from available resources so  that we would have much of a debate. Here are some thoughts, opinions, and fish stories:

A. Graphic organizers have research evidence to support their use in instructional settings. Graphic organizers are not all created equal or equally effective for all. Thus, we could hope that instructors would learn about those graphic organizers that work best, for which purposes, and for which learners. 

Whether they are replacement to test, test, test seems to be a debatable topic. Our  research as well as many others does suggest that graphic organizers can be valuable as part of a formative assessment of learning and instructional outcomes. I've never seen anyone suggest that they would work for other assessment purposes e.g., classification, summative, criterion-referenced, or even placement decisions.

B. Applying research outside of our AE population. Hmmmm. Such a challenge. To use the example above about graphic organizers, very little of that research on the efficacy of graphic organizers comes from studies of adult populations in any adult education or post-secondary setting. Maybe we have to have a healthy skepticism about applying research findings with adolescents (> 4th grade) and post-secondary, employment, and military instructional settings, but that work represents the most significant basis for our procedures and practice. The agencies and foundations have had limited research and evaluation initiatives regarding adult literacy and numeracy so we will likely to continue to rely on findings from outside AE. 

Consider the alternative: how would ignoring those data and findings improve our practice! The alternative of not using those data and findings seems to me to be a terrible mistake in all areas of instruction and understanding of adult learning in cognitive and non-cognitive factors (e.g., motivation, attitudes, self-regulation). 

F. Professional development. Of course we have evidence to support what works in professional development! For example, we know that spray-and-pray approaches don't work! We know that continuous, focused professional development with other supports (e.g., coaching, observations, application in the instructional setting) are important ingredients to successful PD. Again we rely on the research literature from other settings in helping to determine what will work in AE.  The challenge seems that PD needs to take place in a supportive setting that understands the personal, social, and contextual features of AE.

 

Oh my gosh, I just reread my post. I'll stop for now since I have a sense that I am sounding like a TV preacher on a soap box. Great exchange for sure from all contributors.

Best of intentions,
Daryl
Reading and writing community 

It depends on whether u are merely interested in doing the best job u can for the adults u are teaching now

or whether u would like to reduce the need for adult literacy classes. I would like to see more people interested in the latter.

There is a simple reason why all English-speaking countries have relatively hight levels of functional illiteracy:

the inconsistency of English spelling - http://englishspellingproblems.blogspot.co.uk/2013/01/english-spelling-system.html 

For as long as this remains as it is, there will continue to be a need for adult literacy classes, not just for immigrants, but for native speakers as well.

 

For learners here and now, the main challenge is coping with the Foibles of English Spelling, or FOES of learning. They (e.g. an - any, apron; on - only, once, other) are the reason why even learning to read English takes a long time, let alone spelling. That's why i advocate modernisation of English spelling.

Dear Colleagues ~

Thank you to all who proposed a topic for consideration for a community debate. While many topics proposed would make for excellent discussions (and can still be discussed!), I’ve narrowed the list of debatable topics to four.

For the first time ever, the LINCS COPs will host a debate in the Evidence-based Professional Development Group and in other groups where a topic may intersect areas. Which of the following four topics would you most like to see guests and community participants debate? (Cast your vote here.)

  • Moving the goal posts: Are basic skills at risk when teaching to College and Career Ready Standards?
  • Is a HS equivalency really equal? (Are we holding adult students to higher standards for the HS equivalency than youth for the HS diploma?)
  • Should the National Reporting System (NRS) develop a competency-based alternative? If so, should that be in addition to the present system that relies on levels measured by standardized tests, or should it replace that system?
     
  • Does Professional Development (PD) work? How do we know? What can make professional development work better?  How do we improve results? How do we integrate assessment as well as higher levels of evaluation into PD?

Cast your vote here before Friday, June 13. The topic with the most votes will become the topic of our debate this summer.

I look forward to watching the poll!

Have a great weekend,

Jackie Taylor

Evidence-based Professional Development SME